The Boy In The Striped Pyjamas Shmuel Essay Topics


Bruno is the son of a Nazi commandant who is forced to leave his home in Berlin and move to Auschwitz where his father has been reassigned. He is reluctant to leave Berlin where he has two good friends, is close to his grandparents, and lives in a lovely home. Bruno is characterized by an endearing childhood innocence which becomes especially poignant when he meets a young prisoner on the other side of a fence near his house. Bruno remains strikingly unaffected by the war and unmoved by the Nazi beliefs and propaganda which he confronts daily. This may well be due to his young age or the result of his character. In any case, Bruno represents man's capacity for kindness and compassion.


Shmuel is a young Polish Jew who is a prisoner in Auschwitz. Bruno meets him at a fence while exploring near his house. Shmuel is as innocent as Bruno and seems not to quite understand why he is a prisoner. Shmuel reveals that his mother is a teacher who speaks German (which she has taught him), French, Italian and English (which she plans to teach him). Until the deportation, Shmuel lived with his mother, father and brother above his father's watchmaking shop. He tells Bruno about how he came home from school one day to find his mother making armbands for the family which the Nazis forced them to wear. Bruno has a hard time comprehending some of the stories Shmuel tells him because it seems so unimaginable to him. Shmuel becomes worried once his father goes missing in the camp and asks for Bruno's help in finding him. Bruno's willingness to help his friend results in both of them dying at the merciless hands of the Nazis.

Bruno and Shmuel seem to lead parallel yet mutually exclusive lives. They share common interests, the same birthday, and a similar perspective on life. Their friendship is not just unlikely; it defies possibility. In a world and a time where people were being told what to think, who to hate and what relationships were acceptable, Bruno and Shmuel demonstrate how resistant and resilient children can be and how important kindness and compassion are.


Gretel, Bruno's older sister, annoys him a great deal; he refers to her as a "Hopeless Case" who does nothing but cause him grief. Gretel fancies herself far more mature and worldly than Bruno, despite her doll collection which would seem to symbolize her naivete. Gretel is increasingly interested in the beliefs and activities of the Nazi party and, after their move to Auschwitz, befriends one of the Nazi camp guards. In an effort to demonstrate her devotion and dedication to the ideals of the...

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The Boy in the Striped Pajamas is a fictional tale of the unlikeliest of friends: the son of a Nazi commandant and a Jewish concentration camp inmate. Written by John Boyne and published in 2006 by David Fickling Books, the story was made into a major motion picture in 2008.

The novel, set in Nazi Germany, begins when nine-year-old Bruno and his family must move from their lovely home in Berlin to a new house in an unfamiliar place called "Out-With." Tempted to explore his new environment, Bruno is told that there are certain places that are "Out Of Bounds At All Times And No Exceptions." Unable to fight his adventuresome spirit, however, Bruno ventures forth into the unknown one afternoon.

Bruno comes upon a fence that he follows until he sees a young boy sitting on the other side of the fence. The shoeless boy is wearing striped pajamas and a cloth cap. Bruno also notices that the boy is wearing an armband with a star on it. Bruno makes fast friends with the boy, Shmuel, and they quickly discover that they share the same birthday. The boys discuss their families and where they are from. At the end of their first meeting, Bruno asks Shmuel why there are so many people on his side of the fence and what they are doing there. A few days later, Bruno's father has dinner guests; the man's name is "the Fury" and his date is called Eva. Bruno instantly dislikes the couple. Bruno's sister Gretel, whom he refers to as "the Hopeless Case," is smitten by the man and tries hard to impress him and his lady friend. Bruno, however, is disgusted by his sister's behavior and her budding romance with a young soldier.

Much like Bruno hears "Auschwitz" as "Out-With," he also incorrectly hears "the Führer" as "the Fury." Boyne masterfully tells the story from Bruno's perspective; it is clear that the innocence of Bruno's childhood remains intact despite the fact that he is living on the periphery of a death camp and has met Adolf Hitler.

Bruno continues to explore the woods near his house and often finds himself at the fence spending time with Shmuel. Bruno brings him food, and the friends lament the fact that they cannot explore together or play a game of football. Shmuel confides in Bruno that he is unable to find his father and he is worried. Bruno vows to help Shmuel look for his father; to that end, Shmuel promises to get Bruno some pajamas so that he will blend in on his side of the fence.

One fateful day, Bruno sheds his clothes, dons the pajamas, and sneaks onto Shmuel's side of the fence. As the boys search for Shmuel's father, the soldiers herd the prisoners, Bruno among them, into the gas chambers where they meet their untimely death hand in hand.

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas explores the beauty of a child's innocence in a time of war, the common desire we all have for friendship, and the fences—both literal and figurative—that we must all navigate and choose whether or not to break down.

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