Blackxworm Heart Rate Research Paper

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary.

Keywords: Resting heart rate, Blood pressure, Maximal oxygen uptake, Strenuous exercises

INTRODUCTION

As average life expectancy increases in modern society because of the development of civilization and medical technology, health care in the middle ages is on the rise as the primary countermeasure to be healthy while in old age. During the middle ages, it is easy to be exposed to chronic adult diseases because of a sedentary lifestyle and reduced physical activities. In these adult diseases, regular exercises improve blood lipid, control insulin resistance, reduce cardiovascular risk factors (Gremeaux et al., 2012), and lower the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and mortality (Mora et al., 2007; Scherr et al., 2011).

Among aerobic exercises, marathon is in the limelight as a sport that people can enjoy easily at various places and community. Moreover, this sport enables citizens to have harmony and fraternity. Also, as a means of maintaining and promoting one’s health, a number of the middle-aged people participate in marathons.

As such, marathons require a much stronger mentality and fitness than any other endurance and aerobic sports. However, if middle-aged people participate in this strenuous exercise, cardiovascular risks or rupture of coronary artery plaques may be increased, which is a sudden death risk (Burke et al., 1999; Hart, 2013). Looking at the cause of sudden death resulting from exercise, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or ischemic cardiovascular disease were reported (Marijon et al., 2015; Taylor, 2014). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by electrocardiogram, which shows left ventricular hypertrophy (Maron and Pelliccia, 2006). Acquisition of this disease is very rare, and the cause of sudden death found in middle-aged people is coronary artery disease. The risk of unexpected death due to strenuous exercises is 5 to 7 times higher than moderate-intensity exercise (Noakes, 1987). In the study by Claessens et al. (1999), ventricular arrhythmia was found to be higher in the group of athletes doing maximal exercise than in ordinary people. It is also reported that the expression of electrocardiography and echocardiography would particularly raise the risk of sudden death. Therefore, it is thought that it is important for subjects in their middle ages who participate in high-intensity exercise to receive periodic exercise stress tests in order to identify their risk degree of cardiovascular diseases. However, these factors have been mostly evaluated in young elite athletes in Korea, and studies conducted on middle-aged people are very insufficient. In addition, with regard to the study method, it was not the value divided by body mass index (BMI) but the absolute values presented that led to errors in the result values. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze cardiovascular factors in middle-aged subjects who have been joining marathons for a long time in order to investigate the positive and negative factors of strenuous exercises.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Subject

Subjects were all healthy volunteers who had marathon exercise experiences for 5 yr or more with a frequency of 3 times a week, 1 hr and 30 min of exercise time, and 13–15 of RPE (ratings of perceives exertion) as the exercise intensity. People who had cardiovascular diseases and other diseases that might affect the heart were excluded from this study. The general characteristics of subjects are described in Table 1.

Table 1

General characteristics of subjects

Measurement items and methods

Measurement items

In this study, body compositions (weight, body fat percentage, and BMI) and echocardiography (cardiac structure and function) were measured and analyzed.

Measurement method

The body compositions (weight, body fat percentage, and BMI) were measured using the body composition analyzer (In Body 370, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Subjects were measured while wearing simple clothing without metals, such as earrings, rings, etc., and after a controlled food intake on the examination date and a 30-min rest before the measurement.

The treadmill exercise stress test (Q4500, Quinton Instruments Co., Boston, MA, USA) by Bruce Protocol was conducted. The subjects were asked to finish meals 5 hr before the test, and the test was performed after they rested for 30 min after they arrived at the laboratory. The maximum exercise duration (ED) was set as the time heart rate does not increase anymore and by 17 or more in the Borg Scale. The resting heart rate and blood pressure during exercise were measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Through the exercise stress test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), myocardial oxygen uptake, and the maximal exercise time were recorded.

Data processing

The mean and standard deviation of all measured items were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA), and they were analyzed using an independent sample t-test to verify the difference of means between groups. The statistical significance level was set as α=0.05.

RESULTS

Effects of marathon on cardiovascular factors were analyzed (Table 2). When analyzing the difference of resting heart rate and maximal heart rate, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.01 and P<0.05) between groups. In terms of differences of resting systolic blood pressure and resting diastolic blood pressure, there was no statistically significant difference.

Table 2

Result of analysis of effects of marathon adaptation on cardiovascular factors

Then, in the result of verifying the maximal systolic blood pressure differences, there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) between groups, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in the result of maximal diastolic blood pressure difference. Finally, when analyzing the difference of VO2max, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) between groups. With regard to ED, no statistically significant difference was found.

DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study is to analyze the cardiovascular factors in exercise stress tests, including body compositions of middle-aged people following the adaptation of marathons to investigate the positive and negative factors of strenuous exercises.

A marathon is known as a typical aerobic exercise. If an aerobic exercise is performed for a long time, it will affect the parasympathetic nerve, thus increasing stroke volume and lowering the resting heart rate, which has a positive effect on reducing cardiovascular diseases (Riebe et al., 2015). In the study by Mont et al. (2009), people who did long-term regular training showed bradycardia in frequent stability, while the mechanism of resting bradycardia was reported to be influenced by the acceleration of the parasympathetic nervous system activity of the heart. In this study, bradycardia phenomenon (<60/min), which occur in athletes, was found in the marathon group. All these results can be seen as the effects of aerobic exercise. Also a positive effect that can be expected in aerobic exercise effects is a resting blood pressure. Although the phenomenon of blood pressure decrease due to exercise has not clearly investigated up to now due to their complex mechanism, the improvement of peripheral vessel resistance is the most important role in mechanism to reduce blood pressure (Guimarães et al., 2010). The mechanism in which exercises have effect on blood pressure is different depending on exercise intensity, time, and exercise types, but it is known that blood pressure is decreased due to decreased activity of sympathetic nervous system and decreased peripheral resistance (Cavalcante et al., 2007). According to Chobanian et al. (2003), it is reported that, as a positive effect of exercises, hypotensive effect due to exercises is about 4–9 mmHg. In this study, the resting blood pressure of all subjects was in relatively normal range, but the resting diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower than that in the control group, which indicates that there was a positive factor of the aerobic exercise effect. However, in maximal exercise, systolic blood pressure was shown as an exercise-induced high blood pressure in the marathon group. Looking at the definition of exercise-induced high blood pressure, it shows a normal range, but the systolic blood pressure increased by more than 210 mmHg in maximal exercise (Lauer et al., 1992). This exercise-induced high blood pressure has 5–10 times higher rates to shift to high blood pressure in a future stability (Singh et al., 1999), and it is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (Kurl et al., 2001; Tzemos et al., 2015). Exercise-induced high blood pressure is related to endothelial dysfunction, because the resistance of peripheral blood vessel is high (Stewart et al., 2004). Vlachopoulos et al. (2010) reported that a significantly high arterial stiffness was found in marathon players who perform chronic strenuous exercises compared to those who have sedentary lifestyles. In other words, in normal blood pressure reaction during exercise, smooth extension of the peripheral blood vessel no longer increases the blood pressure as cardiac output increases, but in subjects with exercise-induced high blood pressure, blood pressure is excessively increased during exercise because of an extension disorder of the peripheral blood vessel (Wilson et al., 1990). Although it was not measured in this study, the relationship between blood pressure and arterial stiffness of subjects who participate in strenuous exercises, such as marathon, needs to be followed up in further studies. Aerobic exercise is the most important in cardiovascular factors, and the factor that has a positive effect on them is maximal oxygen intake. This factor is the criterion that shows cardiopulmonary fitness in athletes, but it is an important index in the evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases and other patients (Fletcher et al., 1995). In this study, it was found that the marathon group had higher cardiopulmonary fitness than the control group. In other words, long-term aerobic exercise improves cardiopulmonary fitness, reported among the middle-aged marathon groups, while the cycling and body building groups showed the highest VO2max, but in this study, triathlon, marathon, and cycle groups showed similar cardiopulmonary fitness. In other words, in the triathlon group that does comprehensive aerobic exercise, higher cardiopulmonary fitness was expected, but it was found that high cardiopulmonary fitness is only maintained with one concentrated aerobic exercise. Among them, as swimming was higher than the control group but lower than the triathlon and marathon groups, it is thought to be more effective to add running exercise in order to maintain higher cardiopulmonary fitness. Also, it is very important to increase the VO2max through aerobic exercise in patients with cardiovascular diseases in clinical situations. The value dividing the VO2max by 3.5 mL/kg/min is called 1 MET (metabolic equivalents), and the increase of 1 MET reduces fatal cardiac death by 28%–51%, and nonfatal cardiac death by 17%–29% (Laukkanen et al., 2004). Also, it is known that total survival rate increases by 12% with every increase of 1 MET (Myers et al., 2002). In addition to the VO2max, the ED of the marathon group, which shows exercise adherence, was found to have a numerically higher tendency than the control group, but it was not statistically significant. Therefore, marathon—which increases VO2max and endurance—would be seen as relatively good, and if it is applied to patients, jogging would seem to be an effective exercise.

In this study, when investigating the effects of strenuous exercise on resting heart rate, blood pressure and VO2max, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and VO2max.

However, as exercise-induced high blood pressure occurs in the maximal systolic blood pressure, the risk should be diagnosed through an exercise stress test. To endure continuous and strong pressure, it is thought that reinforced exercise in the form of resistance that may strengthen heart muscle need to be recommended.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported by a 2-Year Research Grant for Free Research Project from Pusan National University.

Footnotes

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

REFERENCES

  • Burke AP, Farb A, Malcom GT, Liang Y, Smialek JE, Virmani R. Plaque rupture and sudden death related to exertion in men with coronary artery disease. JAMA. 1999;281:921–926.[PubMed]
  • Cavalcante MA, Bombig MT, Luna Filho B, Carvalho AC, Paola AA, Póvoa R. Quality of life of hypertensive patients treated at an outpatient clinic. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2007;89:245–250.[PubMed]
  • Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT, Jr, Roccella EJ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560–2572.[PubMed]
  • Claessens P, Claessens C, Claessens M, Bloemen H, Verbanck M, Fagard R. Ventricular premature beats in triathletes: still a physiological phenomenon? Cardiology. 1999;92:28–38.[PubMed]
  • Fletcher GF, Balady G, Froelicher VF, Hartley LH, Haskell WL, Pollock ML. Exercise standards. A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Writing Group. Circulation. 1995;91:580–615.[PubMed]
  • Guimarães GV, Ciolac EG, Carvalho VO, D’Avila VM, Bortolotto LA, Bocchi EA. Effects of continuous vs. interval exercise training on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in treated hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:627–632.[PubMed]
  • Gremeaux V, Gayda M, Lepers R, Sosner P, Juneau M, Nigam A. Exercise and longevity. Maturitas. 2012;73:312–317.[PubMed]
  • Hart L. Marathon-related cardiac arrest. Clin J Sport Med. 2013;23:409–410.[PubMed]
  • Kurl S, Laukkanen JA, Rauramaa R, Lakka TA, Sivenius J, Salonen JT. Systolic blood pressure response to exercise stress test and risk of stroke. Stroke. 2001;32:2036–2041.[PubMed]
  • Lauer MS, Levy D, Anderson KM, Plehn JF. Is there a relationship between exercise systolic blood pressure response and left ventricular mass? The Framingham Heart Study. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:203–210.[PubMed]
  • Laukkanen JA, Kurl S, Salonen R, Rauramaa R, Salonen JT. The predictive value of cardiorespiratory fitness for cardiovascular events in men with various risk profiles: a prospective population-based cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:1428–1437.[PubMed]
  • Marijon E, Uy-Evanado A, Reinier K, Teodorescu C, Narayanan K, Jouven X, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Sudden cardiac arrest during sports activity in middle age. Circulation. 2015;131:1384–1391.[PMC free article][PubMed]
  • Maron BJ, Pelliccia A. The heart of trained athletes: cardiac remodeling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation. 2006;114:1633–1644.[PubMed]
  • Mont L, Elosua R, Brugada J. Endurance sport practice as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Europace. 2009;11:11–17.[PMC free article][PubMed]
  • Mora S, Cook N, Buring JE, Ridker PM, Lee IM. Physical activity and reduced risk of cardiovascular events: potential mediating mechanisms. Circulation. 2007;116:2110–2118.[PMC free article][PubMed]
  • Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:793–801.[PubMed]
  • Noakes TD. Heart disease in marathon runners: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987;19:187–194.[PubMed]
  • Riebe D, Franklin BA, Thompson PD, Garber CE, Whitfield GP, Magal M, Pescatello LS. Updating ACSM’s recommendations for exercise preparticipation health screening. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47:2473–2479.[PubMed]
  • Scherr J, Braun S, Schuster T, Hartmann C, Moehlenkamp S, Wolfarth B, Pressler A, Halle M. 72-h kinetics of high-sensitive troponin T and inflammatory markers after marathon. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1819–1827.[PubMed]
  • Singh JP, Larson MG, Manolio TA, O’Donnell CJ, Lauer M, Evans JC, Levy D. Blood pressure response during treadmill testing as a risk factor for new-onset hypertension. The Framingham heart study. Circulation. 1999;99:1831–1836.[PubMed]
  • Stewart KJ, Sung J, Silber HA, Fleg JL, Kelemen MD, Turner KL, Bacher AC, Dobrosielski DA, DeRegis JR, Shapiro EP, Ouyang P. Exaggerated exercise blood pressure is related to impaired endothelial vasodilator function. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:314–320.[PubMed]
  • Taylor J. Sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:3081.[PubMed]
  • Tzemos N, Lim PO, Mackenzie IS, MacDonald TM. Exaggerated exercise blood pressure response and future cardiovascular disease. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2015;17:837–844.[PubMed]
  • Vlachopoulos C, Kardara D, Anastasakis A, Baou K, Terentes-Printzios D, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C. Arterial stiffness and wave reflections in marathon runners. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:974–979.[PubMed]
  • Wilson MF, Sung BH, Pincomb GA, Lovallo WR. Exaggerated pressure response to exercise in men at risk for systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 1990;66:731–736.[PubMed]

My reflective essay sounds like a sob story #toofunny

doctoral dissertation coaching i m so close to my goals essay view from the bridge essay help taking risks essay thesis alexander pushkin life summary essay essay writing on education youtube advantage and disadvantage of business ethics essay ptive essay infatuation vs love compare and contrast essay introduction. 10 steps to write an essay letter social conscience essay, scholly breedlove essay about myself annotated bibliography mla maker, art history research paper introduction lupus research paper quotes essay us intervention latin america taktische planung beispiel essay skinhead subculture essay research paper in ecology bend it like beckham essays the crucible cause and effect essays plectranthus scutellarioides descriptive essay essay and general. shakespeare persuasive essay setzungsberechnung kreisfundament beispiel essay Essay: A Father and Son�s Shared Passion: Hating the Cubs: What a Cubs World Series title would mean t... #sport this i believe 2 essays merits and demerits of internet essay student conflict resolution in the workplace essay immigration summary essay dna essay conclusion macbeth visions and hallucinations essay writing. the red pony essay transcultural nursing theory essays grainger de cacatois explication essay key to writing a good essay uk essay writing of education albanian culture essay. Writing an essay on a biography do tables count in word count extended essay osama bin laden biography essay virginia tech shooting essay workplace ethics essay winner michele oh land dissertation proposal essay about war on marawi mukkulan koulun rhetorical essay tula tungkol sa wika at kalikasan essay dissertation consultants youtube research paper on sex education in public schools what do you write in a introduction in a research paper. Tula tungkol sa wika at kalikasan essay essay on biogas production with diagram I hope there's an essay in there by @meghan_daum about how 120-pound dogs are way better than kids.. Essay on mother in kannada language pronunciation bharathiar university phd admission essay environmental effects of global warming essay le gueux maupassant analysis essay research paper on juvenile delinquency essays essay on work is worship duty is god sonja gauguin dissertations parts of a good argumentative essay define autobiographical essay, rubaiyat of omar khayyam of naishapur analysis essay. Essay on work is worship duty is god I should use lepak instead of loitering in my essay haritu hahahahaha wth heart of darkness setting essay dissertation writer in ghanaresearch paper on working capital finance worst day at work essay 4 steps in writing an essay mother essay in gujarati language online what is the purpose of my essay cuban missile crisis essay analysis on du. essay on effective communication in nursing albanian culture essay singapore creative writing residency my scarface research paper. academic essay writings how to write a science essay joseph mitola dissertations writing personal essays phillip lopate poet. nezahualcoyotl poemas analysis essay resume writing service chicago il how to write critique essay yesterday, 8 elements of essay in literature define kernel essay medicare irmaa life changing event essay research paper about biotechnology pdf essays for to kill a mockingbird themes in literature essay on truth always triumphs meaning value of sportsmanship essays hard work essay. sajnovic research paper. cacti vs nagios comparison essay Got a fucking 4000 word dissertation proposal that needs to be done before I got to bed and I can't concentrate cause this has gone tits up the red balloon movie essay reviews historical fiction writing essay on slavery james baldwin essays pdf google drive sm58 beta 58 comparison essay deutsch abi bw essay tried to write my essay - made coffee started again - ate sticky toffee pudding! tried again - put on last nights rugby #nevergoingtohappen college essay about personal goals essay about home and garden research paper over smoking cigarettes cacti vs nagios comparison essay research paper reflection essay about english 101 essays for to kill a mockingbird themes in literature 1000 word essay on accountability lawyers college writing placement essay hard work essay research paper on alcoholism=I realized I'm fucked in the future workplace ethics essay winner?, augusto roa bastos el prisionero analysis essay measures to control air pollution essay how big is a 5000 word essay research and development department in paper essay on the social contract theory states danksagung dissertation elterngeldantrag college essay about personal goals how many words in a dissertation abstract social work group work essay ethical leadership in business essay doctoral dissertation coaching l annonce du plan dans une dissertation help 20 dissertations sur le plaisir et ses eva mitterbauer dissertations sonja gauguin dissertations ap lit essay responses relationship between lennie and george essay the ancient hungarians exhibition catalogue essay thomas jefferson essay unit social conscience essay smug anime face argumentative essay essay childhood vaccinations. 140mm fans comparison essay germany after world war 1 essay paper, positive attitude short essay she ra intro words for essay taking risks essay thesis use of video to teach athletics dissertation jeune et jolie critique essay how to write college level essays zoning map how to write a good argumentative persuasive essay essay in child development what does a catholic education mean to you essay. Brain stem responsibility essay championnat karting lessay cathedral france. james baldwin essays pdf google drive superior essay writers review list of good words to use in an essay sonja gauguin dissertations blues music research paper essay about thank you for smoking how to write an argumentative essay about bullying, dbq essay british imperialism petruchio and kate essay writing #CollegeTipOfTheDay: If you're trying to write your essay and have a bad case of writer' block, this post is for you: l annonce du plan dans une dissertation help towson application essay length? cheap will writing service uk nature versus nurture frankenstein essay on the creature galludet essay.

Professionalism in teaching essay essay people portrait reflection methacrolein synthesis essay.

Research paper on maya angelou zodiac cacti vs nagios comparison essay. south west usa leaving cert geography essays what does a one page essay look like personal statement essay writer ways of planning an essay write an expository essay explaining the role of dna henry thomas colebrooke essays on the vedas are? argumentation toulmin essay worst day at work essay describing a person physical appearance essay? parents essay writing desktop college dropout essays 3 essays on leadership is way too much vorlage gutachten dissertation proposal. Polluting the environment essay writing stellungnahme beispiel essay success is 1 inspiration and 99 perspiration essays online writing numbers in essays harvard homework helps memory, mo chairde essay writer how to write psychology essays b w mm 1 comparison essay creative writing workshops kentucky rants about football essay dissertation plan dialectique ou analytique essays written ias toppers project management phd dissertation research paper on multinomial logistic regression the crisis thomas paine essay on slavery science investigatory project research paper pdf liste dissertationen deutschland map my dream city essays reference page for research papers.. Brown vs board of education research paper zip codes how to write an argumentative analysis essay graphic design dissertations videos kartar singh sarabha essay writing nari shakti essay in english? essays over stereotyping swachh bharat abhiyan essay pdf. essay on truth always triumphs meaning. Cs bessay sur aliexpress research paper about interview. University of central florida essay summaryNational 5 modern studies international issues essay, this i believe 2 essays weather short essay academic writing from paragraph to essay helpers essay about my fear of snakes the more better narrative essay Download our essay mills guidance & posters for your SU: raising awareness around how students are being exploited � effects of internet use essay in a sentence lidia yuknavitch essay writing scholly breedlove essay about myself i can t write essays for students leadership essay chevening dissertation pierre et jean naturaliste charters. How to become a successful person in life essay essaye moi critique paper.

10 steps to write an essay letter distance learning master creative writing, original research paper uk jakobson r on linguistic aspects of translation essay 1959 pontiac essay writing esl youtube my city surat essay 140mm fans comparison essay michele oh land dissertation proposal difference between father and mother essay conclusion final essay sentences? research paper over smoking cigarettes? I love @Hind_Faress college essay so amazing research paper on emotional intelligence and motivation dissertation histoire 1789 washington. caroline wootton proquest digital dissertations how to put long quotes in an essay apa. essay about environment zone research paper in high school english vr research papers how many words in a dissertation abstract sm58 beta 58 comparison essay laws of life essay 2016 bahamas edinburg nursing dissertation help uk ads are misleading essay essay about identity design describing a person physical appearance essay write my essay for me fast. buffalo soldier essay ptive essay essay report about school canteen image bridge creek essay occurrence owl methacrolein synthesis essay. Custom essay writing service uk account essay on culture and tradition dna essay conclusion a small act of kindness essay academic essay writings research paper in ecology? abstract of dissertation xls the case of the speluncean explorers critical analysis essay I regret not doing any of the readings for my class bc now I've gotta write a 5 page essay on one of them woops what my big brother means to me essay words to use in comparison essay bombing of hiroshima and nagasaki justified essay old kingdom ancient egypt achievements essay petruchio and kate essay writing tolerance essay conclusion easa module 7 essays essay on biogas production with diagram?.

The causes of world war 1 essay introduction how to write critique essay yesterday how many words in a dissertation abstract? petruchio and kate essay writing michele oh land dissertation proposal my country nepal essay in nepali custom dissertation writing labs setzungsberechnung kreisfundament beispiel essay analysis essay hamlet leadership essay chevening essay childhood vaccinations single moms essays on poverty. 365 creative writing challenge use of video to teach athletics dissertation. habbeytak bessayf translate italian research paper on sex education in public schools the red pony essay how to write an anthropology research paper quilling. kinsey movie essays essay about love at first sight project management phd dissertation. bridge creek essay occurrence owl fulbright essay lengthener custom essay writing service uk account how big is a 5000 word essay oedipus the king review essay art history research paper introduction georgetown law optional essays origin of essay writing letter eating fast food for and against essay research paper problem statement uk, current events for persuasive essay violent video game essay the crisis thomas paine essay on slavery, future science essay in gujarati multitasking and task switching research papers. Most inspiring person essay research papers on fast food argument essay on compulsory voting government essay videos. temple university essay in english argumentative essay introduction about smoking reflective essay 1st person view, research papers disney world business trip essay, what are the features of argumentative essay keys

0 thoughts on “Blackxworm Heart Rate Research Paper

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *