Latex Class Book Bibliography Page

LaTeX supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the environment and the BibTeX system.

Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.

[edit]Introduction

Standard bibliography commands in LaTeX have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.

\begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}

The environment produces a list of references; such list will be titled "References" in a article document class, and "Bibliography" in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99.

To create a bibliography entry the command is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on is entered.

ShareLaTeX provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Embedded system

The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of that list within the document.

\begin{document}   \section{First section}   This document is an example of \texttt{thebibliography} environment using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}   \end{document}

The command insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of is [2].

The information printed by the command depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Bibliography management with Bibtex

BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in LaTeX, with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document.

Once the external bibliography file is imported, the command is used just as in the introductory example.

Ths document is an example of BibTeX using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}

This uses the following commands:

Imports the BibTeX file "sample.bib" to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary.
Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher, and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in LaTeX.
This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label produces [2].

When the main document is compiled, a .bbl file is generated from the .bib file. This is simply a .tex file reorganising the information in the .bib file in a environment, as above. On ShareLaTeX the .bbl file is stored in the cache, and you can download it from the list of other logs and files.

Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools.

  Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]The bibliography file

Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields. Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry.

This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:

This is the first line of a record entry, denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, and ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
The label is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.

The information in this file can later be used within a LaTeX document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection.

  Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Adding the bibliography in the table of contents

There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).

To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command or


for books and reports or


for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example.

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \section{First Section} This document ...   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

Adding the line


to the preamble will print the "References" or "Bibliography" in the table of contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation].

  Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Reference guide

Standard entry types

Article from a magazine or journal
A published book
A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution
An article in a conference proceedings
A part of a book (section, chapter and so on)
A part of a book having its own title
An article in a conference proceedings
Technical documentation
A Master's thesis
Something that doesn't fit in any other type
A PhD thesis
The same as
Report published by an institution
Document not formally published, with author and title


Most common fields used in BibTeX

address annote author
booktitle chapter crossref
edition editor institution
journal key month
note number organization
pages publisher school
series title type
volume year URL
ISBN ISSN LCCN
abstract keywords price
copyright language contents

[edit]Further reading

For more information see:

@article{einstein, author = "Albert Einstein", title = "{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. ({German}) [{On} the electrodynamics of moving bodies]", journal = "Annalen der Physik", volume = "322", number = "10", pages = "891--921", year = "1905", DOI = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19053221004" }   @book{latexcompanion, author = "Michel Goossens and Frank Mittelbach and Alexander Samarin", title = "The \LaTeX\ Companion", year = "1993", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", address = "Reading, Massachusetts" }   @misc{knuthwebsite, author = "Donald Knuth", title = "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting", url = "http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html" }
\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{Bibliography}
\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{References}
\usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}

BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as . The name is a portmanteau of the word bibliography and the name of the TeXtypesetting software.

The purpose of BibTeX is to make it easy to cite sources in a consistent manner, by separating bibliographic information from the presentation of this information, similarly to the separation of content and presentation/style supported by LaTeX itself.

Basic structure[edit]

In the words of the program’s author:

Here’s how BibTeX works. It takes as input

  1. an file produced by LaTeX on an earlier run;
  2. a file (the style file), which specifies the general reference-list style and specifies how to format individual entries, and which is written by a style designer [..] in a special-purpose language [..], and
  3. file(s) constituting a database of all reference-list entries the user might ever hope to use.

BibTeX chooses from the file(s) only those entries specified by the file (that is, those given by LaTeX's or commands), and creates as output a file containing these entries together with the formatting commands specified by the file [..]. LaTeX will use the file, perhaps edited by the user, to produce the reference list.[1]

History[edit]

BibTeX was created by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport in 1985. It is written in WEB/Pascal.

Version 0.98f was released in March 1985.

With version 0.99c (released February 1988), a stationary state was reached for 22 years.

In March 2010, version 0.99d was released to improve URL printing. Further releases were announced.[1]

Reimplementations[edit]

During the period following BibTeX's implementation in 1985, several reimplementations have been published:

BibTeXu
A reimplementation of bibtex (by Yannis Haralambous and his students) that supports the UTF-8 character set. Taco Hoekwater of the LuaTeX team has criticized it.[2]
bibtex8
A reimplementation of bibtex that supports 8-bit character sets.
CL-BibTeX
A completely compatible reimplementation of bibtex in Common Lisp, capable of using bibtex .bst files directly or converting them into human-readable Lisp .lbst files. CL-BibTeX supports Unicode in Unicode Lisp implementations, using any character set that Lisp knows about.
MLBibTeX
A reimplementation of BibTeX focusing on multilingual features, by Jean-Michel Hufflen.[3]
BibLaTex
A complete reimplementation. "It redesigns the way in which LaTeX interacts with BibTeX at a fairly fundamental level. With biblatex, BibTeX is only used to sort the bibliography and to generate labels. Instead of being implemented in BibTeX's style files, the formatting of the bibliography is entirely controlled by TeX macros."[4] It uses the bibliography processing program Biber and offers full Unicode and theming support.
Bibulous
A drop-in BibTeX replacement based on style templates, including full Unicode support, written in Python.[5]

Bibliographic information file[edit]

BibTeX uses a style-independent text-based file format for lists of bibliography items, such as articles, books, and theses. BibTeX bibliography file names usually end in . A BibTeX database file is formed by a list of entries, with each entry corresponding to a bibliographical item. Entry types correspond to various types of bibliographic sources such as , , or .

An example entry which describes a mathematical handbook would be structured as an entry name followed by a list of fields, such as and :

@Book{abramowitz+stegun,author="Milton {Abramowitz} and Irene A. {Stegun}",title="Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables",publisher="Dover",year=1964,address="New York City",edition="ninth Dover printing, tenth GPO printing"}

If a document references this handbook, the bibliographic information may be formatted in different ways depending on which citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago etc.) is employed. The way LaTeX deals with this is by specifying commands and the desired bibliography style in the LaTeX document. If the command appears inside a LaTeX document, the program will include this book in the list of references for the document and generate appropriate LaTeX formatting code. When viewing the formatted LaTeX document, the result might look like this:

Abramowitz, Milton and Irene A. Stegun (1964), Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables. New York: Dover.

Depending on the style file, BibTeX may rearrange authors' last names, change the case of titles, omit fields present in the file, format text in italics, add punctuation, etc. Since the same style file is used for an entire list of references, these are all formatted consistently with minimal effort required from authors or editors.

The types of entries and fields used in virtually all BibTeX styles BibTeX are listed below.

Entry types[edit]

A BibTeX database can contain the following types of entries:

An article from a journal or magazine.
Required fields: author, title, journal, year, volume
Optional fields: number, pages, month, note, key
A book with an explicit publisher.
Required fields: author/editor, title, publisher, year
Optional fields: volume/number, series, address, edition, month, note, key, url
A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution.
Required fields: title
Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note, key
The same as , included for Scribe compatibility.
A part of a book, usually untitled. May be a chapter (or section, etc.) and/or a range of pages.
Required fields: author/editor, title, chapter/pages, publisher, year
Optional fields: volume/number, series, type, address, edition, month, note, key
A part of a book having its own title.
Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year
Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edition, month, note, key
An article in a conference proceedings.
Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year
Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note, key
Technical documentation.
Required fields: title
Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note, key
A Master'sthesis.
Required fields: author, title, school, year
Optional fields: type, address, month, note, key
For use when nothing else fits.
Required fields: none
Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key
A Ph.D. thesis.
Required fields: author, title, school, year
Optional fields: type, address, month, note, key
The proceedings of a conference.
Required fields: title, year
Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, address, month, publisher, organization, note, key
A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series.
Required fields: author, title, institution, year
Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note, key
A document having an author and title, but not formally published.
Required fields: author, title, note
Optional fields: month, year, key

Field types[edit]

A BibTeX entry can contain various types of fields. The following types are recognized by the default bibliography styles; some third-party styles may accept additional ones:

Publisher's address (usually just the city, but can be the full address for lesser-known publishers)
An annotation for annotated bibliography styles (not typical)
The name(s) of the author(s) (in the case of more than one author, separated by )
The title of the book, if only part of it is being cited
The chapter number
The key of the cross-referenced entry
The edition of a book, long form (such as "First" or "Second")
The name(s) of the editor(s)
How it was published, if the publishing method is nonstandard
The institution that was involved in the publishing, but not necessarily the publisher
The journal or magazine the work was published in
A hidden field used for specifying or overriding the alphabetical order of entries (when the "author" and "editor" fields are missing). Note that this is very different from the key (mentioned just after this list) that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry.
The month of publication (or, if unpublished, the month of creation)
Miscellaneous extra information
The "(issue) number" of a journal, magazine, or tech-report, if applicable. (Most publications have a "volume", but no "number" field.)
The conference sponsor
Page numbers, separated either by commas or double-hyphens.
The publisher's name
The school where the thesis was written
The series of books the book was published in (e.g. "The Hardy Boys" or "Lecture Notes in Computer Science")
The title of the work
The field overriding the default type of publication (e.g. "Research Note" for techreport, "{PhD} dissertation" for phdthesis, "Section" for inbook/incollection)
The volume of a journal or multi-volume book
The year of publication (or, if unpublished, the year of creation)

In addition, each entry contains a key (Bibtexkey) that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry. This key is the first item in a BibTeX entry, and is not part of any field.

Style files[edit]

BibTeX formats bibliographic items according to a style file, typically by generating TeX or LaTeX formatting commands. However, style files for generating HTML output also exist. BibTeX style files, for which the suffix is common, are written in a simple, stack-based programming language (dubbed "BibTeX Anonymous Forth-Like Language", or "BAFLL", by Drew McDermott) that describes how bibliography items should be formatted. There are some packages which can generate files automatically (like custom-bib or Bib-it).

Most journals or publishers that support LaTeX have a customized bibliographic style file for the convenience of the authors. This ensures that the bibliographic style meets the guidelines of the publisher with minimal effort.

Uses[edit]

  • NASA Astrophysics Data System – The ADS is an online database of over eight million astronomy and physics papers and provides BibTeX format citations.
  • INSPIRE-HEP – The INSPIRE High-Energy Physics literature database provides BibTeX format citations for over one million high-energy physics papers.
  • BibSonomy – A social bookmark and publication management system based on BibTeX.
  • Citavi - Reference manager. Works with various TeX-Editors and supports BibTeX input and output.
  • CiteSeer – An online database of research publications which can produce BibTeX format citations.
  • CiteULike – A community based bibliography database with BibTeX input and output.
  • The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies – uses BibTeX as internal data format, search results and contributions primarily in BibTeX.
  • Connotea – Open-source social bookmark style publication management system.
  • Digital Bibliography & Library Project – A bibliography website that lists more than 910,000 articles in the computer science field.
  • Google Books - The bibliographic information for each book is exportable in BibTeX format via the 'Export Citation' feature.
  • Google Scholar – Google's system for searching scholarly literature provides BibTeX format citations if you enable the option in 'Scholar Preferences'.
  • Google Research – Google Research provides BibTeX format citations for all research papers.[6]
  • HubMed – A versatile PubMed interface including BibTeX output.
  • MathSciNet – Database by the American Mathematical Society (subscription), choose BibTeX in the "Select alternative format" box
  • Mendeley – Reference Manager, for collecting papers. It supports exporting collections into bib files and keep them synchronized with its own database.[7]
  • Qiqqa – Provides a fully featured BibTeX editor and validator, along with tools for automatically populating BibTeX records for your PDFs.
  • refbase – Open source reference manager for institutional repositories and self archiving with BibTeX input and output.
  • RefTeX – Emacs based reference manager
  • Wikindx – Open source Virtual Research Environment/enhanced bibliography manager including BibTeX input and output.
  • Zentralblatt MATH – Database by the European Mathematical Society, FIZ Karlsruhe and Heidelberg Academy (subscription, 3 free entries); choose BibTeX button or format.
  • Zotero – Firefox plugin with advanced features such as synchronization between different computers, social bookmarking, searching inside saved PDFs and BibTeX output.

See also[edit]

Data schemes

  • EndNote – a text-based data scheme used by the EndNote program
  • refer – an aging text-based data scheme supported on UNIX-like systems
  • RIS – a text-based data scheme from Research Information Systems

Other

References[edit]

External links[edit]

0 thoughts on “Latex Class Book Bibliography Page

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *