Barbara W. Tuchmans Essay Perdicaris Alive Or Raisuli Dead

As political slogans go, “General Motors is alive and Osama bin Laden is dead” is truly excellent. Within the space of a bumper sticker, it sears into voters’ minds two accomplishments that President Obama most wants them to remember while casting doubt on Mitt Romney’s charges that Obama has mismanaged the economy and projected weakness abroad.

The Obama campaign is seemingly unaware that its slogan echoes one that helped propel Theodore Roosevelt to victory in 1904. Then, the cry was “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead.”

Penned by Roosevelt’s secretary of state, John Hay, and read to the 1904 Republican convention in Chicago by House Speaker Joe Cannon, the words “electrified” the delegates, according to historian Barbara Tuchman.

A fictionalized version of the underlying story was presented in the 1975 movie “The Wind and the Lion,” starring Sean Connery and Candice Bergen. Ion Perdicaris was a wealthy businessman living in Tangier when he was kidnapped by the pirate Raisuli (who today would be called a terrorist). Roosevelt chose to escalate the incident into a crisis. Backing up his demand of “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead” with gunboats and a detachment of Marines, he ultimately won Perdicaris’s release.

Carried on a wave of patriotism inspired by the slogan, the Republican delegates in Chicago, who had previously been lukewarm toward Roosevelt, nominated him by acclamation. And after Perdicaris was freed, Roosevelt was reelected in a landslide.

We now know, however, that like a blinding light, Roosevelt’s slogan obscured at least as much as it illuminated. Decades later, after the relevant records were declassified, was it revealed that Perdicaris was not a U.S. citizen when he was kidnapped and therefore was not entitled to U.S. government protection. Not only that, but Roosevelt knew Perdicaris this when he escalated the crisis and decided to withhold the fact from the American people.

In addition, the threat implicit in the slogan was not directed at Raisuli the pirate but, rather, at the sultan of Morocco. Roosevelt’s real demand was that the sultan pay the ransom Raisuli was asking or face U.S. military action. The sultan was motivated to free Perdicaris by paying the ransom — not exactly what anyone today would regard as a courageous response to terrorism.

Given what was concealed by Roosevelt’s slogan, it seems wise to consider what might be obscured by Obama’s rallying cry.

Certainly one thing obscured by “GM is alive and bin Laden is dead” is that while Osama bin Laden may be dead, al-Qaeda most emphatically is not. Suspicions that the Obama administration wanted to perpetuate confusion on this point drive the ongoing controversy regarding the Sept. 11 terrorist attack on the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi, Libya. Questions about what the White House knew and when are aimed at uncovering whether the administration tried to conceal al-Qaeda’s role in the attack.

Also obscured is why bin Laden was killed. His death is of a piece with the Obama administration’s signature anti-terrorism policy of killing suspected terrorists in drone attacks.

This policy appears tough while avoiding messy questions about how to detain, interrogate and punish terrorist suspects. But these virtues come at the cost of lost intelligence that can be gained only through interrogation — the kind of intelligence collected during the George W. Bush administration that enabled the Obama administration to locate bin Laden. Only time will clarify the degree to which intelligence lost by Obama’s policy has made us more vulnerable to terrorist attack.

There is also the question of how sustainable this policy will be over the longer term. In addition to the public backlash in Pakistan, a movement has emerged to “ban the drones.” Inexplicably, its organizers have focused on the instrument of Obama’s policy — drones — rather than on those who direct it. But at some point critics will decide that the government conducting these attacks, starting with the president, is more responsible than the drones.

Finally, the Obama slogan implies that GM might not be alive under policies recommended by those who wanted to, say, “put GM into bankruptcy,” such as Romney. This confuses the difference between bankruptcy and going out of business. Obama ultimately put GM into bankruptcy — but ensured that his union friends’ contracts were protected — so his real difference with Romney is over the terms of that bankruptcy. Here, too, history will be the judge: whether GM emerged stronger as a result of the taxpayer-funded terms imposed by Obama, or if it would have emerged stronger under the regular rules of bankruptcy.

It is an adage of politics that a bumper sticker beats an essay every time. And so, just as “Perdicaris Alive or Raisuli Dead” helped propel President Roosevelt’s campaign in 1904, “GM is alive and bin Laden is dead” is boosting President Obama this year, regardless of the facts.

Topics in Chronicling America - The Perdicaris Affair

Ion Perdicaris, an American businessman, is kidnapped on May 18, 1904 in Tangier, Morocco and held for ransom. President Theodore Roosevelt demands that the Moroccan government obtain Perdicaris' release and orders Navy ships to Morocco. Perdicaris is eventually released unharmed, and the incident is now often remembered for the statement made by US Secretary of State John Hay, "Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead." Read more about it!

The information and sample article links below provide access to a sampling of articles from historic newspapers that can be found in the Chronicling America: American Historic Newspapers digital collection (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/). Use the Suggested Search Terms and Dates to explore this topic further in Chronicling America.


Jump to:Sample Articles

Important Dates:

  • May 18, 1904: Ion Perdicaris, a Greek-American citizen, and his stepson are kidnapped by a Moroccan brigand, Ahmed ibn-Muhammed Raisuli, in Tangier, Morocco. Raisuli demands ransom payments and political influence in exchange for Perdicaris’ safe return.
  • May 19, 1904: President Roosevelt orders a naval squadron to Morocco.
  • May 31, 1904: France offers her assistance in resolving the affair.
  • June 22, 1904: U.S. Secretary of State John Hay dispatches an ultimatum to the Moroccan sultan demanding “Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead.”
  • June 24, 1904: Raisuli’s demands are met, and Perdicaris is released.

Suggested Search Strategies:

  • [Try the following terms in combination, proximity, or as phrases using Search Pages in Chronicling America.] .] Perdicaris, Raisuli, bandit, kidnapped, Morocco, Roosevelt.
  • Because newspapers used alternate spellings for the name of the Moroccan brigand who captured Perdicaris try the following in combination with other search terms: Fraissouli, Raissouli, Raisulis, Raisouli, Raisuli.

Sample Articles from Chronicling America:

  • "Rich American is Captured by Arab Bandits," The St. Louis Republic (St. Louis, MO), May 20, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 2.
  • "Squadron is Ordered to Tangier," The San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA), May 20, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 1.
  • "Prisoners of Brigand Imperiled," The San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA), May 30, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 1 .
  • "For Division of Morocco," The Times Dispatch (Richmond, VA), May 31, 1904, Page 12, Image 12, col. 3.
  • "France Takes a Hand," The New York Tribune (New York, NY), June 01, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 1.
  • "Ultimatum of Morocco Bandit Renews Fears that Captives may die before Rescuers Arrive," The San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA), June 04, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 3.
  • "May Finish Morocco," The New York Tribune (New York, NY), June 05, 1904, Page 3, Image 19, col. 2.
  • "Tangier Incident Excites Europe," The Washington Times (Washington, DC), June 06, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 3.
  • "Motive in Kidnapping of American Citizen in Tangier," The Palestine Daily Herald (Palestine, TX), June 11, 1904, Page 6, Image 6, col. 1.
  • "Perdicaris Alive or Raisuli Dead," The St. Louis Republic (St. Louis, MO), June 23, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 1.
  • "Perdicaris Free at Last," The New York Tribune (New York, NY), June 25, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 6.
  • "Moroccan Bandit Raissouli received Ransom and at once releases Perdicaris and Varley," The San Francisco Call (San Francisco, CA), June 25, 1904, Page 1, Image 1, col. 2.
  • "Raisuli, the Bandit," The New York Tribune (New York, NY), July 10, 1904, Page5, Image 32, col. 1.
  • "The Morocco of the Future as Mr. Perdicaris Pictures it," The Times Dispatch (Richmond, VA), August 12, 1906, Page 6, Image 28, col. 1.
  • "Raisuli the Bandit," The Desert Evening News (Great Salt Lake City, UT), August 24, 1907, Page 15, Image 15, col. 1".

0 thoughts on “Barbara W. Tuchmans Essay Perdicaris Alive Or Raisuli Dead

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *